Methodology in research proposal is fundamental. In conducting research, a structured and systematic scientific method is needed that can make the research we do more useful and understandable.
The scientific method is very supportive in the process of organizing education in various levels of education, including in research.
In general, the basis and framework of the research are almost the same in all studies. What distinguishes is some application of techniques that must be adapted to the field of science.
In conducting research, there are 3 main things that we must determine in advance.
1. Research questions
Research questions are what we want to find answers to from this research.
2. Research problems
After finding the research question, you need to formulate what problem you want.
3. The purpose of the study
To answer the research problems, we need to take several steps to get the research objectives.
- Methodology in Research Proposal
- Phase I. Determine what will be studied
- 1. Finding research problems
- Phase II. Make a research plan
- 2. Make a research design concept
- 3. Making data collection instruments
- 4. Choose a research sample
- 5. Write a research proposal
- Phase III. Application of Methodology in Research Proposal
- 6. Data collection
- 7. Processing and presenting data
- 8. Write a research report
- You have to read this!
Methodology in Research Proposal
In research from beginning to end, there are several phases that we need to do. Each stage has a methodology, procedure, or characteristic that will help us find the best results in the research we do.
This method is strongly influenced by the type of research we use, whether it’s qualitative or quantitative.
Usually, quantitative research has an ordered research structure by scientific rules in general. While qualitative research can be disordered following scientific rules.
However, the steps that I have presented are the scientific method procedures commonly used in research.
This methodology in a research proposal is a common procedure that you have to obey to present a valuable result.
Phase I. Determine what will be studied
1. Finding research problems
Finding problems in research is the earliest stage and very crucial in the research process. A researcher must be able to identify what he wants to examine.
The more specific and detailed the problem under study, the better the research.
Therefore, make sure you arrange and determine the research problem carefully, thoroughly, and carefully.
Several aspects also need to be considered in conducting research; funds, time and energy. These three things are always taken into consideration in determining research problems.
Always consider these three things in determining your research problem. For example, you are interested in researching the socio-economic conditions in a region.
If you have large funds, of course, you can research with coverage of up to 1 province.
However, if you have limited funds, it’s good that you only do it for the coverage of 1 district or city.
Phase II. Make a research plan
2. Make a research design concept
The next scientific stage in research is to use methods that are suitable and suitable for the conditions of your research.
Research requires explanations and descriptions that are systematic, controlled, understandable, and detailed.
The main purpose of making a research design concept is to explain how you can find answers to research questions.
The research design must be detailed and can explain what we want to find.
A research design allows us to find valid and accountable results. Errors in making research design concepts can lead to the results of research that we find to be less precise and even wrong.
This is very exciting because it certainly wastes time, money and energy.
When making a research concept, make sure the design that you have compiled is valid, can be completed, and can be managed properly according to your abilities.
You must have a strong foundation to show readers why your research is important to do and what benefits can be obtained from the findings later.
You also have to know the strengths and weaknesses of the research you are doing. You also have to understand the limitations of research to maintain a broad scope of research.
You also need to be able to explain concretely what resources are needed to support the implementation of research.
3. Making data collection instruments
I have to be honest, this is my favorite part of methodology in research proposal.
Research requires data, and of course, you must prepare instruments that can support you to get the data you want.
Everything that supports the process of collecting data and information that you need is called a research instrument.
The research instruments could include interviews, research questionnaires, questionnaires for filling out questionnaires, etc.
To make this research instrument, you must first determine the type of data you need. Each data has different instrument characteristics.
For example, if you want to use primary data, of course, you need a questionnaire for answers from respondents.
You also have to determine whether this questionnaire is made in paper form or digital form such as google form.
If you use several officers in data collection, you can also conduct training for data collection officers to maintain the quality of the data you produce.
If necessary, also prepare a data collection manual as a preparation for field implementation later.
You also have to carry out validity tests and reliability tests to prove whether the questionnaire that you are compiling can answer the things that are the purpose of the study.
If you use secondary data, you must identify what data is needed and where the source of the data is. If the information you need is available online, of course you can easily access the website pages provided.
However, if it is not available online, then you might have to prepare data collection instruments such as questionnaires to collect these data.
Preliminary studies are sometimes also needed as part of the data collection instrument. This study can be used as supporting material in carrying out your research.
Don’t forget to also prepare other instruments such as computers and processing programs to analyze the data that you have found.
4. Choose a research sample
The next stage in conducting research is sample selection.
Appropriate and accurate samples with sufficient amounts will influence the results of the study. In principle, the sample selection method aims to produce optimal samples and maximum results.
As much as possible, the number of samples used is relatively small but can describe the entire population.
There are 2 principles that we must hold in selecting samples; choose the best possible sample to avoid bias in selecting samples and analysis of precise and accurate results with all the limitations of existing resources.
In general, there are 3 types of sampling techniques that can be used.
1. Random/probability sampling
2. Non-random /non-probability sampling
3. Mixed sampling
Each sampling method has its advantages and disadvantages. This depends on the characteristics of the population that you will examine.
For example, if you want to examine the income characteristics of the population in an area, it is certainly good that you use probability sampling which can represent income levels.
Otherwise, if you want to research with a sample of commercial sex workers, of course, these people will be difficult to find. Then you can use non-probability sampling to simplify your work.
5. Write a research proposal
After all, preparations have been completed, the next stage is to present all the things that we have planned in the study into the form of a research proposal.
In general, this research proposal contains research problems and how you plan to find answers to these problems.
Research proposal aims to explain in detail how the process and tools you use to find research results. To further strengthen the proposal, you need to ensure the validity of the methodology you use accurately and objectively.
Each institution has procedures for writing research proposals that may differ from one another. However, in general, research proposals include:
- What is the research topic?
- How do you do the research?
- Why did you choose the method to carry out the research? Also, the following detailed information is usually included in the research proposal
- The purpose of the study
- The hypothesis used (if any)
- Research design
- Rules and limitations in research
- Research instruments used
- Number of samples and sample designs
- Data processing procedures
- Outline of the research report
Phase III. Application of Methodology in Research Proposal
6. Data collection
After completing the research proposal, preparing all research instruments, all samples have been determined, so now we can collect data from the object we want to examine.
There are so many data collection techniques that can be used, depending on the objectives and resources that are owned.
You can do research using a questionnaire with direct interviews. Or also by telephone interview. It could also be by filling out the questionnaire independently (self-enumeration).
You can also collect data using the focus group discussion (FGD) method or direct observation of the research object.
Or, you can combine several data collection techniques to improve your data quality.
7. Processing and presenting data
Talking about processing and presenting data depends on the type of data and the purpose of the research that we use.
Will, the data be presented descriptively, inferential, qualitative, quantitative, etc. You can display results in tabulations, graphics, maps, infographics, etc.
Many types of analysis can be used such as regression analysis, hypothesis testing, factor analysis, etc. Make sure you also master supporting software such as Microsoft Excel, SPSS, or E-views which makes it easier for you to do data analysis.
Understanding statistical procedures are very helpful for you in presenting good research data.
8. Write a research report
You are in the last part of methodology in research proposal.
In writing a research report, you can adjust the type of research you are using. You can present reports in qualitative, quantitative, or a combination of the two.
Writing reports is the last thing in the whole process that we do in research. Therefore, make sure the report you write contains important information from all the things you have examined.
Tell what the results of the research that are useful to the reader, also conclude what you think is the note in this study.
You also have to write reports in a structured and systematic manner following applicable academic rules.
In general, there are 8 stages of the Methodology in Research Proposal as I wrote above.
Each stage can adjust according to the type and purpose of the research you are using.
In some cases of research, the method above may change and not sequentially, especially if you use the qualitative research method.